Distinct low ridge connecting two tubercles or posterior swellings (observed on dry larval surface). E‐mail: b.t.l.h.van.de.vossenberg@minlnv.nl. The scutellum is inflated and shiny black. The Mediterranean fruit fly and its economic impact on Central American countries and Panama. Sanidad. Larval Diagnosis The primary diagnostic characters for Mediterranean fruit fly larvae involve the anterior spiracles, the buccal carinae, and the prominent subspiracular tubercles of the caudal end. It is by Florida Division of Plant Industry at Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Tephritis capitata Wiedemann Graphic by Division of Plant Industry. In this age of jet transportation, the medfly can be transported from one part of the world to some distant place in a matter of hours, which greatly complicates efforts to contain it within its present distribution. Berg GH. 2), rear view maggot (posterior view and lateral view of posterior end), and shape and arrangement of caudal spiracles. Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), is one of the most important fruit pests worldwide. The female's extended ovipositor is 1.2 mm long. Positive Amplification Controls (C. capitata WGA product) for the ITS1 PCR‐RFLP assay can be obtained from BTLH van de Vossenberg, National Reference Laboratory, Wageningen, The Netherlands (for address see below). Dorsocentral bristles are anterior of the halfway point between supraalar and acrostichal bristles. Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Figure 20. The number of eggs found at any time in the reproductive organs is no indication of the total number of eggs an individual female is capable of depositing, as new eggs are being formed continually throughout her adult life. The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is one of the world's most destructive fruit pests. When the eggs hatch, the larvae promptly begin eating. Eggs are deposited under the skin of fruit which is just beginning to ripen, often in an area where some break in the skin already has occurred. The development of fly larvae is mediated by bacterial decay in the fruit tissue. The male has a pair of bristles with enlarged spatulate tips next to the inner margins of the eyes. A molecular test is also described that can be performed on adults or larvae. The adults are slightly smaller than a house fly and have picture wings typical of fruit flies. For identification of the family Tephritidae, see Stehr (1991); for identification of the genera and species Ceratitis capitata larvae, see White & Elson‐Harris (1992), but it should be noted that this key is based on old and inadequate descriptions and does not include all Ceratitis spp. Larvae pass through three instars. The caudal end has bifurcate or paired dorsal papillules (D1 and D2) on small mount of relatively flat plate; intermediate papillules (I1-2) as a line of fused elevations on a very enlarged subspiracular tubercle, plus a remote I3 at approximately 45 degrees from I1-2; L1 on the median edge of the caudal end; V1 not prominent; posterior spiracles elongate (4.5 to 5X width), with dorsal and ventral spiracles angled away from relatively planar median spiracle; interspiracular processes (hairs) usually not branched; anal lobe bifid or entire. It is likely that the test will work equally well on eggs and pupae, but no validation data is available to support this. Morphological identification with a binocular microscope is the recommended diagnostic method. In: Insects of Hawaii. Larval identification is extremely difficult, so that when feasible it is best to rear them to adults for identification. The median area is relatively unsclerotized. Thank you for your cooperation in the eradication of Mediterranean fruit fly. Primers described by Douglas and Haymer (2001) located in the 18S and 5.8S regions spanning the ITS1 region: forward primer ITS1‐F5 (5′‐ CAC GGT TGT TTC GCA AAA GTT G – 3′) and reverse primer ITS1‐B9 (5′‐ TGC AGT TCA CAC GAT GAC GCA C – 3′), each used at a final concentration of 0.4 μM. The following performance criteria have been determined: analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, repeatability, reproducibility and robustness. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. Larval life may be as short as six to 10 days when the mean temperatures average 77 to 79°F (25 to 26.1°C). Its larvae feed and develop on many deciduous, subtropical, and tropical fruits and some vegetables. When the sterile flies mate with the fertile population, no offspring are produced. Larva For identification of the third-instar larva, see White and Elson-Harris (1994). Copulation may occur at any time throughout the day. Some adults may survive up to six months or more under favorable conditions of food (fruit, honeydew, or plant sap), water, and cool temperatures. Adults are collected primarily by use of sticky-board traps and baited traps (USDA 1997). Hardy DE. E‐mail: valerie.balmes@anses.fr. Because of its wide distribution over the world, its ability to tolerate cooler cli… E‐mail: valerie.balmes@anses.fr. Rhode RH, Simon J, Perdomo A, Gutierrez J, Dowling Jr. CF, Linquist DA. Anterior spiracles in characteristic, almost parallel, pattern not on raised surface, and without rings or semicircles; typically bears 7–10 lobes or digits in a simple arc or nearly straight line. The average values of the detection limits per larvae (expressed in DNA mass) plus three times standard deviation was calculated. Greene CT. 1929. Larva For identification of the third-instar larva, see White and Elson-Harris (1994). Photograph by Anne-Sophie Roy, European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization; www.forestryimages.org. The pharyngeal skeleton is distinctive in overall configuration, particularly the enlarged subhypostomium of the hypostomium (posterior to each mouth hook). A C. capitata specimen is identified when the PCR product is digested as follows: DraI: 400, 350, 170 and 100 bp, HinfI: 900 and 120 bp, SspI: 510, 230, 150, 100 and 30 bp and TaqI: 480, 470 and 70 bp. Photograph by USDA. Graphic by Division of Plant Industry. (Note that this key adapted from White & Elson‐Harris (1992) is not exhaustive. C. capitata has been recorded feeding on over 300 host plants. Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in apples of the varieties Golden Delicious, Granny Smith and Red Delicious. The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata is a major pest in horticulture. Larva: Larva are white with a typical fruit fly larval shape, i.e., cylindrical maggot-shape, elongate, anterior end narrowed and somewhat recurved ventrally, with anterior mouth hooks, and flattened caudal end. United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. Back EA, Pemberton CE. 77. 1981 (publication date not given). Drawing by G.J. Mediterranean fruit fly in the U.S. - 1975. 1984. ... revealing the fruit in the gut. Ocellar bristles present (Fig. 1998, Papadopoulos 2008). The repeatability and reproducibility tests were spread over the course of 2 weeks to mimic a day‐to‐day variation in testing conditions. Among fruit fly species, C. capitata has the largest variety of host-fruits, including over 200 different types of fruits and vegetables. Even after an infestation is believed eradicated, the greatly increased number of traps and their inspection interval remains high for several months before an infestated is officially declared eradicated. Leftwich PT(1), Nash WJ(1), Friend LA(1), Chapman T(1). Dorsal view of adult male Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). 6). There is a wide brownish yellow band across middle of wing. larvae and emerged adults of Ceratitis capitata. 1.0 μL dNTPs (10 mM each), final concentration 0.2 mM. a single leg) serve as input for DNA extraction. United States Department of Agriculture Bulletin 536: 1-119. Name: Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824). Male anterior pair of orbital bristles different (, Anterior pair of orbital bristles modified with apical end dark and diamond‐shaped, Anterior pair of orbital bristles not modified (. Gradually, the wild flies can only find sterile flies to mate, the wild population is eradicated. Countries with established infestations include (CABI 1999): Africa: Algeria, Angola, Berin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Congo, Congo Democratic Republic, Cote d'Ivoire, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Keyna, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malwai, Mali, Maritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Reunion, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Africa, St. Helena, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zimbabwe, Asia: Cyprus, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, Yemen, Central American and Caribbean: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panama, Puerto Rico, Europe: Albania, Azores, Balearic Islands, Canary Islands, Corsica, Croatia, France, Greece, Italy, Maderia Islands, Portugal, southern Russia, Sardinia, Sicily, Slovenia, Spain, Yugoslavia, South American: Argentina, Brazil, Columbia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela. Females will not oviposit when temperatures drop below 60.8°F (16°C) except when exposed to sunlight for several hours. Phillips VT. 1946. 100-102. Humeral bristles are present. Larvae of Ceratitis capitata. Ceratitis capitata is a highly polyphagous species whose larvae develop in a very wide range of unrelated fruits. Samples should be checked every 2 days for puparia and fruit from which larvae have emerged should be discarded. For both the Roche‐Kit and the Qiagen‐Kit, DNA is eluted in 50 μL preheated elution buffer (provided). Medflies often share regurgitated food. Fruit Stripping: Fruit will be stripped from all host trees on a known larval properties and within 200 meters (656 feet). Adult Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), feeding on a cotton wick soaked with a bait-dye mixture. Photograph by USDA. Miscellaneous Publications, No. Note that a reliable morphological identification can only be performed on an adult specimen. The shape of the interior sclerotizations of the dorsal wing plate and the hood of the pharyngeal plate are also distinctive for the species. The adults are readily recognisable by external morphology, particularly thoracic and wing patterns (White and Elson-Harris, 1994). After mating, one female adult can lay as many as 800 eggs during its lifetime [2]. Ocellar bristles are present. Ceratitis capitata extension of cell cup. Minimum duration of the pupal stage is six to 13 days when the mean temperature ranges from about 76 to 79°F (24.4 to 26.1°C). Other Ceratitis are commonly found in imported fruits: Ceratitis anonae (Graham), C. cosyra (Walker) and C. rosa Karsch. Once an adult Mediterranean fruit fly is positively identified, the number of baited traps throughout that area is greatly increased to capture the flies and remove them from the environment, and to serve as a monitoring tool for the effectiveness of the eradication program. Figure 5. 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